Various types of energy storage batteries
All traditional rechargeable batteries belong to electrochemical storage systems.
1.Fluid flow battery (FB)
FB is rechargeable. In FB, energy is stored in electrically active substances. Electroactive substances are dissolved in the liquid electrolyte in the tank, and the chemical energy is converted into electric energy through the battery, and then the liquid is pumped out of the reaction chamber. Redox flow (RFB) and mixed flow (HFB) are specific embodiments of FB.
2.Secondary (rechargeable) battery
2.1 Lead acid batteries.
Lead acid batteries have been used as commercial energy since 1860. The common use of LA batteries is the starting power supply for each internal combustion engine vehicle. Because of its durability, safe operation, good temperature tolerance, and low cost, it can usually be used for emergency power supply, renewable energy storage, and grid peak shaving. The battery uses Pb as the negative electrode, PbO2 as the positive electrode, and H2SO4 as the electrolyte.
2.2 Nickel-based battery
Nickel-based battery uses nickel hydroxide as cathode and cathode materials. There are many kinds of bases. Nickel-based batteries can be divided into nickel-iron, nickel cadmium, nickel zinc, nickel hydrogen, and Ni-H2 according to the type of anode materials. Generally, in nickel-based batteries, the active material nickel hydroxide is used as the positive electrode, potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte, and metal Fe/Cd/Zn, MH, or H2 as the negative electrode.
2.3 Zinc halide battery
In the Zn Br2 battery, energy is stored and released through the electrochemical reaction of a system composed of Zn and Br. The system consists of the following parts: zinc, bromine, zinc-bromine aqueous solution electrolyte, electrolyte storage device and microporous plastic membrane. In this system, the electrolyte of zinc bromide solution is circulated between the two electrodes through a pump. During charging, zinc is deposited on the negative electrode, and bromine is deposited on the positive electrode; During discharge, zinc ions and bromine ions are formed on their respective electrodes.
2.4 Metal air battery
The metal electrode acts as the anode, and oxygen is supplied from the inexhaustible air as the cathode. In metal-air batteries, lithium, calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminum, and zinc are used as anode metals. Its theoretical energy density is very high, 11.14kWh/kg. Regardless of air, its specific energy is more than 100 times that of other types of batteries. However, the fire risk of this type of battery is very high. Air containing water vapor may cause a fire.
2.5 Sodium- β Battery
Sodium (Na) is a very attractive material for battery anode. Sodium- β The battery adopts a solid electrolyte, specifically using β- Alumina（ β- As an electrolyte, Al2O3) has good Na+conductivity and electrical insulation at high temperatures. Depending on the cathode material, sodium- β Batteries are classified as sodium sulfur (Na-S) and sodium metal halide batteries, respectively.
2.6 Lithium battery
According to the constant cathode materials, lithium-ion batteries are classified into lithium manganate (LiMn2O4), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LiNiMnCoO2), lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (LiNiCoAlO2) and lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) batteries.